This guidance manual for the control and mitigation of drinking water losses in distribution systems was prepared by the Drinking Water Protection Division of the U.S. Environmental Protection Administration in 2008.
Maintaining system infrastructure to deliver clean and safe drinking water to customers is often a significant challenge for the operators of public water systems (PWSs). In addition to the physical loss of water from the distribution system, water can be “lost” through unauthorized consumption (theft), administrative errors, data handling errors, and metering inaccuracies or failure.
This manual provides guidance for the development and implementation of a water loss control program can help identify and reduce actual water losses along with apparent losses resulting from metering, billing or accounting errors. Water loss control programs can potentially defer, reduce, or eliminate the need for a facility to expend resources on costly repairs, upgrades, or expansions. A water loss control program will also protect public health through reduction in potential entry points of disease-causing pathogens.
Performance-based contracts can, under conditions delineated in this document, be a very effective, and, ultimately, cost-efficient mechanism for implementing NRW projects.The case of the WSC-Miya PBC in New Providence, Bahamas is a very good illustration of the attributes and benefits of a well designed PBC – 1) baseline study and target/plan adjustment period; 2) a “minimum scope” combined with flexibility for the contractor to adjust specific plans to the evolving situation, to both exceed targets and receive additional performance-based remuneration; 3) rapid NRW reduction, with its technical, financial and political benefits and results; 4) reduced project risk for the utility; 5) a lengthy maintenance phase to promote sustainability of the NRW reductions and 6) overall improvement of technical and financial performance at a competitive price.
Using some key messages, The Manager’s Non-Revenue Water Handbook leads the utility manager through the stages of addressing NRW—first, understanding and quantifying NRW, and then developing a strategy to address it. This handbook was jointly funded by Ranhill Utilities Berhad and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). AECOM International Development provided assistance.
Volume 4 of the Utility Management Series for Small Towns prepared by UN-Habitat Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative team and National Water and Sewerage Corporation of Uganda.
Volume 5 of the Utility Management Series for Small Towns prepared by UN-Habitat Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative team and National Water and Sewerage Corporation of Uganda.
Volume 6 of the Utility Management Series for Small Towns prepared by UN-Habitat Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative team and National Water and Sewerage Corporation of Uganda.