Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies

This is the second edition of this free manual; the first was published in 2008. Its intended audience is engineers and planners in low- and middle-income countries, primarily intended to be used for communicative planning processes involving local communities. It consists of nine system templates that start with the simplest system a pit latrine and go on to increase in
complexity from there. The systems in this manual are:

 System 1: Single Pit System
 System 2: Waterless Pit System without Sludge Production
 System 3: Pour Flush Pit System without Sludge Production
 System 4: Waterless System with Urine Diversion
 System 5: Biogas System
 System 6: Blackwater Treatment System with Infiltration
 System 7: Blackwater Treatment System with Effluent Transport
 System 8: Blackwater Transport to (Semi-) Centralized Treatment System
 System 9: Sewerage System with Urine Diversion

Each system is defined with a diagram indicating the various components in it. It is followed by a basic sketch of the system with additional discussion on implementing it. The next section consists of the technology information sheets and provides basic information about the technology and how it operates. Pros and cons for the technology also are provided. The manual is intended to be used to begin discussions with groups as to what their needs and interests are. It is not intended to be used as the sole basis of design.

An Examination of CLTS’s Contribution to Universal Sanitation

This review offers a description of the CLTS intervention, tracing its evolution in theory and practice from Southeast Asia to its current place as a global phenomenon. It explores the open defecation free (ODF) concept (including varying definitions from country to country) and analyzes its strengths and weaknesses. It also highlights the disconnect between the independent monitoring and analysis of CLTS program results on the one hand and internal performance reports released by implementing organizations or their donors on the other. In compiling this information, we considered the challenges of measuring open defecation and suggest potential solutions that may lie in the more straightforward measure of private latrine ownership.

This review also seeks to assess (1) circumstances in which CLTS works best, (2) the most promising implementation modalities, and (3) instances where CLTS may not be suitable. CLTS should not be judged as a stand-alone intervention, but rather as a powerful option among an array of sanitation interventions whose limitations in selected circumstances must be recognized to best adapt it to diverse
contexts and optimize its integration with other measures.