An Examination of CLTS’s Contribution to Universal Sanitation

This review offers a description of the CLTS intervention, tracing its evolution in theory and practice from Southeast Asia to its current place as a global phenomenon. It explores the open defecation free (ODF) concept (including varying definitions from country to country) and analyzes its strengths and weaknesses. It also highlights the disconnect between the independent monitoring and analysis of CLTS program results on the one hand and internal performance reports released by implementing organizations or their donors on the other. In compiling this information, we considered the challenges of measuring open defecation and suggest potential solutions that may lie in the more straightforward measure of private latrine ownership.

This review also seeks to assess (1) circumstances in which CLTS works best, (2) the most promising implementation modalities, and (3) instances where CLTS may not be suitable. CLTS should not be judged as a stand-alone intervention, but rather as a powerful option among an array of sanitation interventions whose limitations in selected circumstances must be recognized to best adapt it to diverse
contexts and optimize its integration with other measures.

USAID Organizational Capacity Assessment Tool

The goal of this tool is to assist organizations in assessing the critical elements for effective organizational management and identifying those areas that need strengthening or further development.

The OCA tool was designed to enable organizations to define a capacity-building improvement plan, based on self-assessed need. This Organizational Capacity Assessment (OCA) was initially designed to measure the overall capacity of organizations funded by President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) under the New Partners Initiative (NPI). This OCA tool provides organizations with a set of criteria to assess their current management capacity to implement quality health programs, to identify key areas that need strengthening.
Although many capacity assessments exist, the structure and process of this tool distinguish it from others. Multi-level and multi-department involvement fosters team building and organizational learning. The inclusion of management, compliance, and program components ensure a holistic understanding of the organization’s strengths and challenges and the guided self-assessment by skilled facilitators instills ownership on the part of the organization for its improvement plan.

The OCA tool assesses technical capacity in seven domains, and each domain has a number of sub-areas.

OCA Domains
1. Governance
2. Administration
3. Human Resources
4. Financial Management
5. Organizational Management
6. Program Management
7. Project Performance Management

This Organizational Capacity Assessment tool is designed to enable organizational learning, foster team sharing, and encourage reflective self-assessment within organizations.

Human and Institutional Capacity Development Handbook

This USAID handbook will help water and sanitation institutions to build human and institutional capacity. The Human and Institutional Capacity Development (HICD) Handbook was developed by the Bureau for Economic Growth, Agriculture and Trade (EGAT) to help USAID integrate Human and Institutional Capacity Development (HICD) into its development assistance programs. It provides information on the evolution of HICD, implementation guidance, and tools for implementing HICD initiatives.

Manager’s Non-Revenue Water Handbook

Using some key messages, The Manager’s Non-Revenue Water Handbook leads the utility manager through the stages of addressing NRW—first, understanding and quantifying NRW, and then developing a strategy to address it. This handbook was jointly funded by Ranhill Utilities Berhad and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). AECOM International Development provided assistance.