Applying Behavioral Insights to Reduce Fraud, Error, and Debt

By understanding better how people respond to different contexts and incentives, [governments] can develop a more nuanced understanding of human behavior that can ultimately help us to design more effective interventions to tackle fraud, error, and debt. Many of these interventions are relatively simple and cheap and can be introduced alongside some of the more traditional methods employed by public bodies.

This document does two things, Part 1 sets out seven of the most important insights that can be used by public bodies to reduce fraud, error, and debt. Part 2 describes eight trials which the [UK Government’s] Behavioural Insights Team has launched with a range of different government departments, agencies, and local authorities to test these insights in practice

How to Triple the Success Rate of Government Transformations

According to a survey of nearly 3,000 public officials across 18 countries, part of this landmark study undertaken by the McKinsey Center for Government (MCG), around 80 percent of government efforts to transform unfortunately fail to fully meet their objectives. The failure rate of government transformations represents a huge missed opportunity to tackle society’s greatest challenges more effectively and deliver better services for citizens. MCG estimates that were governments globally to match the rate of their most improved peers, they could save as much as $3.5 trillion a year by 2021 while maintaining today’s levels of service quality. Alternatively, they could release funds to strengthen high-priority services while keeping overall government expenditure constant.

The MCG study includes insights from 80 transformation cases and 30 in-depth interviews with leaders who have personally driven transformations in government. Using these insights MCG identified five disciplines that together can more than triple the chances of success of government transformations. They may seem obvious, but MCG’s research shows that they are extremely difficult to get right. MCG calls them the five Cs:

1. Committed leadership.
2. Clear purpose and priorities.
3. Cadence and coordination in delivery.
4. Compelling communication.
5. Capability for change.

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies

This is the second edition of this free manual; the first was published in 2008. Its intended audience is engineers and planners in low- and middle-income countries, primarily intended to be used for communicative planning processes involving local communities. It consists of nine system templates that start with the simplest system a pit latrine and go on to increase in
complexity from there. The systems in this manual are:

 System 1: Single Pit System
 System 2: Waterless Pit System without Sludge Production
 System 3: Pour Flush Pit System without Sludge Production
 System 4: Waterless System with Urine Diversion
 System 5: Biogas System
 System 6: Blackwater Treatment System with Infiltration
 System 7: Blackwater Treatment System with Effluent Transport
 System 8: Blackwater Transport to (Semi-) Centralized Treatment System
 System 9: Sewerage System with Urine Diversion

Each system is defined with a diagram indicating the various components in it. It is followed by a basic sketch of the system with additional discussion on implementing it. The next section consists of the technology information sheets and provides basic information about the technology and how it operates. Pros and cons for the technology also are provided. The manual is intended to be used to begin discussions with groups as to what their needs and interests are. It is not intended to be used as the sole basis of design.

Reforming Urban Laws in Africa – A Practical Guide

This guide aims to create and strengthen law-making processes that build and secure the legal rights of all people living in all urban areas to be governed fairly, live safely, earn a living and participate fully in the economic and cultural offerings of cities. It does not aim to address all the problems of African cities. Rather, it focuses on strengthening efforts to improve the legal framework within which urban areas are managed, planned, governed and financed to create cities that are more sustainable, inclusive and efficient.

Legal systems differ across the region, with a particular divide between the Anglophone countries’ legal traditions and those of the Lusophone and Francophone countries. This guide is written to support urban legal reform in both contexts while acknowledging that distinct legal issues will inevitably arise in different places.

PPP Reference Guide – Version 3

A growing number of governments are interested in partnering with the private sector to provide public infrastructure assets and services. The PPP Reference Guide aims to assist them. The Guide tackles the following questions:

What are public-private partnerships (PPPs), why and when to use them? What kind of policy, legal, and institutional framework is needed to ensure PPPs achieve their objectives efficiently and effectively? What is the process for developing and implementing a PPP project?
The Guide provides the most relevant examples and resources on key PPP topics and helps readers navigate the substantial body of knowledge that has been generated across the world by governments, international development institutions, academia, and the private sector. It is not a toolkit or a step-by-step guidebook; nor does it cover the specifics of PPPs in any given country or sector.

The third edition includes new subjects such as stakeholder communication and engagement, environmental and social studies and standards, and climate change. Additional relevant sections include municipal PPPs and private participation in fragile and conflict-affected states.

An Examination of CLTS’s Contribution to Universal Sanitation

This review offers a description of the CLTS intervention, tracing its evolution in theory and practice from Southeast Asia to its current place as a global phenomenon. It explores the open defecation free (ODF) concept (including varying definitions from country to country) and analyzes its strengths and weaknesses. It also highlights the disconnect between the independent monitoring and analysis of CLTS program results on the one hand and internal performance reports released by implementing organizations or their donors on the other. In compiling this information, we considered the challenges of measuring open defecation and suggest potential solutions that may lie in the more straightforward measure of private latrine ownership.

This review also seeks to assess (1) circumstances in which CLTS works best, (2) the most promising implementation modalities, and (3) instances where CLTS may not be suitable. CLTS should not be judged as a stand-alone intervention, but rather as a powerful option among an array of sanitation interventions whose limitations in selected circumstances must be recognized to best adapt it to diverse
contexts and optimize its integration with other measures.

USAID Organizational Capacity Assessment Tool

The goal of this tool is to assist organizations in assessing the critical elements for effective organizational management and identifying those areas that need strengthening or further development.

The OCA tool was designed to enable organizations to define a capacity-building improvement plan, based on self-assessed need. This Organizational Capacity Assessment (OCA) was initially designed to measure the overall capacity of organizations funded by President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) under the New Partners Initiative (NPI). This OCA tool provides organizations with a set of criteria to assess their current management capacity to implement quality health programs, to identify key areas that need strengthening.
Although many capacity assessments exist, the structure and process of this tool distinguish it from others. Multi-level and multi-department involvement fosters team building and organizational learning. The inclusion of management, compliance, and program components ensure a holistic understanding of the organization’s strengths and challenges and the guided self-assessment by skilled facilitators instills ownership on the part of the organization for its improvement plan.

The OCA tool assesses technical capacity in seven domains, and each domain has a number of sub-areas.

OCA Domains
1. Governance
2. Administration
3. Human Resources
4. Financial Management
5. Organizational Management
6. Program Management
7. Project Performance Management

This Organizational Capacity Assessment tool is designed to enable organizational learning, foster team sharing, and encourage reflective self-assessment within organizations.

IFC – Manual for Performance-Based Contracting by Water Utilities in Brazil

Performance-based contracting can improve public water utility operational efficiency levels, and consequently, the quality of the public services rendered.

This manual has seven sections. Section 2 offers a brief description of the current situation regarding Brazil’s water utility companies’ water losses and energy use. Section 3 explains why it is advantageous to use performance contracts as a means to reduce water losses and to foster energy efficiency in water utility companies. Section 4 demonstrates how to conduct a technical evaluation of the water losses and use of energy by water utility operators. Section 5 prescribes how to carry out an economic-financial feasibility study, enabling water utility operators to verify if the benefits of undertaking a water loss reduction program justify the costs. Section 6 offers details on the legal aspects of a performance contract. Finally, Section 7 presents a brief summary and some conclusions.

IDB – Case Study for NRW Reduction and Control (New Providence, Bahamas)

Performance-based contracts can, under conditions delineated in this document, be a very effective, and, ultimately, cost-efficient mechanism for implementing NRW projects.The case of the WSC-Miya PBC in New Providence, Bahamas is a very good illustration of the attributes and benefits of a well designed PBC – 1) baseline study and target/plan adjustment period; 2) a “minimum scope” combined with flexibility for the contractor to adjust specific plans to the evolving situation, to both exceed targets and receive additional performance-based remuneration; 3) rapid NRW reduction, with its technical, financial and political benefits and results; 4) reduced project risk for the utility; 5) a lengthy maintenance phase to promote sustainability of the NRW reductions and 6) overall improvement of technical and financial performance at a competitive price.

World Bank Investment Project Finance Procurement Policy

The World Bank’s policy governing the procurement of goods, works, non-consulting services, and consulting services. Compliance with this policy will help water and sanitation borrowers to achieve value for money with integrity in delivering sustainable development.